Below are some frequently asked questions about LNG. If you have additional questions, please contact our Customer service 020-62 62 62.
What is LNG?
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been cooled to minus 163 degrees Celcius. At that temperature, natural gas condenses into a liquid. When in liquid form, natural gas takes up to 600 times less space than in its gaseous state. LNG is odorless, colorless, non-corrosive and non-toxic. Its weight is less than one-half that of water.
Where does the gas come from?
The gas can come from several different locations. There are now a large number of import terminals for LNG in Europe and several facilities for the production of LNG. There are thus many possibilities to transport LNG to Gothenburg. Göteborg Energi and Gasnor will buy LNG from the location and the supplier who offers the most cost efficient option. The areas where large gas discoveries have been made are Norway, Denmark, Algeria, Indonesia, Trinidad, Tobago, Nigeria, Qatar, Oman, Russia and Australia.
How long will natural gas / LNG last?
Natural gas consists mainly of methane. Currently known natural gas reserves equates to approximately 65 years of global natural gas consumption. Unconventional natural gas reserves that are more difficult to reach are estimated to yield about 350 years of global natural gas consumption. Methane can also be produced from biomass and coal. And because of that methane gases will probably play an equally important role as a fuel in the year 2500 as it does today.
How many LNG ships will there be in 2013?
There are currently between 25-30 LNG-powered ships in service or under construction. In addition, some of the major LNG tanker ships run on LNG. We anticipate that the number of LNG-powered ships continues to grow in the coming years. We are also aware of that the financial turmoil may slow nykontrakteringen in the next few years.
Has the ship owners decided to convert to LNG?
Many shipping companies are currently reviewing how to operate their vessels in 2015 when new an more restrictive emission standards for sulphur takes effect in SECA areas (North and Baltic Seas). LNG operation is the best option for the environment and also an economically competitive alternative.
What other options are available to ship owners?
The alternatives to operating on LNG in 2015 is to use a low sulphur oil or have emission control equipment installed on the ship.
Is it safe to use LNG?
The technical solutions to power a ship with gas already exists and the use of gas is safetywise equivalent to the use of oil. Gas is currently used as fuel in about 5 million cars, but this is seen as more risky than using petrol.
Is LNG a new technology or process?
No. LNG was proven viable in 1917. It was first used in the U.S. in 1941. The use of LNG is a proven, reliable and safe process.
Why liquefy natural gas?
The change to a liquid reduces the volume of natural gas by about 600 to 1, which means one LNG tanker can transport enough LNG to equal 600 tanker ships carrying natural gas. Liquefying natural gas makes it feasible to transport natural gas by tanker and to store it in preparation for vaporization and supply into pipelines. LNG can be shipped from areas with plentiful natural gas resources to areas where natural gas is needed.
How is LNG changed into liquid form, and then back into a gas?
Natural gas is cooled by a large refrigeration system. This conversion of natural gas into liquid is termed liquefaction. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) takes up 600 times less space than natural gas in its natural state. LNG is easier to transport. To transform LNG back into a gas, the liquid is passed through vaporizers that warm it, causing it to boil and vaporize. Advanced and proven technologies are used for both processes.
How is LNG transported?
LNG is transported in large, specially designed ships. These ships have double hulls and are about 950 feet long and 150 feet wide.
Will LNG burn?
For any substance to burn, there must be three components present and in the right combination: (1) the substance, (2) oxygen and (3) heat. LNG does not itself burn because it does not contain oxygen. However, like natural gas, LNG vapors are flammable when mixed in a 5 to 15 percent concentration with air. If the concentration is lower than 5 percent it cannot burn because of insufficient fuel. If the concentration is higher than 15 percent it cannot burn because there is insufficient oxygen. Therefore, the fire hazard of LNG is preconditioned on the LNG being released, the LNG vaporizing, mixing with air in a very narrow gas to air ratio of 5-15 percent and finding an ignition source.
Will LNG explode?
No, because it contains no oxygen to react with the fuel. Even LNG vapors in an open environment do not have enough oxygen to react with the fuel. LNG spill studies have shown that high winds rapidly dissipate the LNG vapor and low winds (or no wind) keep the flammable vapor cloud very close to the source.
Is LNG odorized?
The liquid is not odorized because the odorant would freeze out as a solid when natural gas is cooled down to minus 163 degrees Celcius. When LNG is vaporized and distributed, the natural gas is odorized as required by government regulations.
Is a spill detectable?
Within an LNG facility or onboard a ship, there are various types of hazard detectors used to alert personnel to a leak or spill. These could include detection for the presence of gas, flame, smoke, high temperatures or low temperatures. While LNG vapors have no odor or color, if an LNG release occurred, LNG’s low temperature will cause condensation of water vapor in the air and form a visible white cloud that would be readily apparent.
What does an LNG receipt terminal look like?
An LNG import terminal consists of the dock(s) for the ship to bring the LNG onshore, the LNG storage tank(s), vaporizers and other equipment to turn the LNG from a cold liquid back into natural gas.